The Development Of Schooling In Past Times
A school is a specific educational establishment designed to offer different learning environments and learning spaces for the teaching of different students under the instruction of qualified teachers. Most developed countries have system of pre-school, which can be compulsory. In these systems, children progress from a primary school to secondary school. In some cases, they may continue to school beyond secondary school. But in most developing countries, children study in schools that are basically designed as ‘feeder schools’ for adult education.
In countries like Australia, UK and US, primary education lasts for a period of 5 years from birth. The period of secondary school may extend up to full university degree in some cases. Generally speaking, both young children and adults may pursue higher education after completing primary school. But in many countries, primary school is the beginning of higher education.
In the Australian school system, the government encourages parents to enroll their children in pre-school so that they gain early exposure to the educational environment. The Pre-School Australia is a national framework program that provides quality fundamental education, in primary school and further levels of education. The Pre-School system incorporates the development of competencies, early childhood education, community integration and workplace learning. According to the Pre-School Australia website, the program supports the nationwide strategy on the status of children in learning, which acknowledges the importance of quality early childhood education and the importance of social and intergenerational development.
In British English, the word primary school has been used to describe primary schools that educate the younger children, usually from nursery grade upwards. In United States, the term primary school can be used to specify any four year university, four year college or for the training for teachers in kindergarten through grade twelve. In Canada, the word primary school can also be used to refer to public schools, (colleges or Universities), a body of religious education ( Sisters in Society) and any other type of institution of learning. In Australia, the term primary school can be used to mean a school that teaches reading, writing, science and math, as well as coaching and mentoring. Other countries use the term primary school to refer to a school that provides diplomas, certificates, associate degrees or university diplomas.
In common doctrine, there are three levels or stages in learning. The first stage, the elementary level, is the least difficult. The second stage, known as the middle school stage, consists of reading, writing, math and science; the third stage, known as the high school stage, consists of all the reading, writing, math and science plus further liberal arts and other subjects, including liberal studies, political science, philosophy, psychology, sociology and the physical sciences. The stages themselves are not mutually exclusive, but the more recent developments in education have shown that there are considerable differences between them and the differences in their levels of achievement and success between them.
In education, as in all aspects of life, there is room for change and improvement. And yet, in the case of schooling, because human beings are social beings and because school is viewed by many as a social activity, there are some marked changes from the norm. Students from different socio-economic backgrounds are achieving at the same high rate. There is greater freedom in thinking, speaking and acting in school than anywhere else in life.